Software Testing Is An Investigation Conducted To Provide Stakeholders With Information About The Quality Of The Software Product Or Service Under Test.

1.What is Software Testing? What is the need of Software Testing?

Software testing is a process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding the software bugs.It can also
be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a software program or application or product:

  • Meets the business and technical requirements that guided it’s design and development
  • Works as expected
  • Can be implemented with the same characteristic.

Also Software Testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the
product or service under test. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow
the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of
executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs(errors or other defects).

Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties
of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test:

  • meets the requirements that guided its design and development,
  • responds correctly to all kinds of inputs,
  • performs its functions within an acceptable time
  • is sufficiently usable,
  • can be installed and run in its intended environments, and
  • achieves the general result its stakeholders desire.

As the number of possible tests for even simple software components is practically infinite, all software testing uses some
strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources. As a result, software testing typically (but not
exclusively) attempts to execute a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs(errors or other defects).
The job of testing is an iterative process as when one bug is fixed, it can illuminate other, deeper bugs, or can even create
new ones.

Software testing can provide objective, independent information about the quality of software and risk of its failure to users
and/or sponsors.

Software testing can be conducted as soon as executable software (even if partially complete) exists. The overall approach to
software development often determines when and how testing is conducted. For example, in a phased process, most testing
occurs after system requirements have been defined and then implemented in testable programs. In contrast, under an Agile
approach, requirements, programming, and testing are often done concurrently.

2.Software Testing LifeCycle (STLC). Explain

Software Testing Life Cycle refers to a testing process which has specific steps to be executed in a definite sequence to
ensure that the quality goals have been met. In STLC process, each activity is carried out in a planned and systematic
way. Each phase has different goals and deliverables. Different organizations have different phases in STLC; however the
basis remains the same.

Below are the phases of STLC:

  • Requirements phase
  • Planning Phase
  • Analysis phase
  • Design Phase
  • Implementation Phase
  • Execution Phase
  • Conclusion Phase
  • Closure Phase


Requirement Phase

During this phase of STLC, analyze and study the requirements. Have brainstorming sessions with other teams and try to
find out whether the requirements are testable or not. This phase helps to identify the scope of the testing. If any feature is
not testable, communicate it during this phase so that the mitigation strategy can be planned.

Planning Phase

In practical scenarios, Test planning is the first step of the testing process. In this phase we identify the activities and
resources which would help to meet the testing objectives. During planning we also try to identify the metrics, the method
of gathering and tracking those metrics.

On what basis the planning is done? Only requirements?

The answer is NO. Requirements do form one of the bases but there are 2 other very important factors which influence
test planning. These are:

– Test strategy of the organization.

– Risk analysis / Risk Management and mitigation.

Analysis Phase

This STLC phase defines “WHAT” to be tested. We basically identify the test conditions through the requirements
document, product risks and other test basis. The test condition should be traceable back to the requirement. There are
various factors which effect the identification of test conditions:

– Levels and depth of testing

– Complexity of the product

– Product and project risks

– Software development life cycle involved.

– Test management

– Skills and knowledge of the team.

– Availability of the stakeholders.

We should try to write down the test conditions in a detailed way. For example, for an e-commerce web application, you
can have a test condition as “User should be able to make a payment”. Or you can detail it out by saying “User should be
able to make payment through NEFT, debit card and credit card”. The most important advantage of writing the detailed
test condition is that it increases the test coverage, since the test cases will be written on the basis of the test condition,
these details will trigger to write more detailed test cases which will eventually increase the coverage.

Also identify the exit criteria of the testing, i.e determine some conditions when you will stop the testing.

Design Phase

This phase defines “HOW” to test. This phase involves the following tasks:

– Detail the test condition. Break down the test conditions into multiple sub conditions to increase coverage.

– Identify and get the test data

– Identify and set up the test environment.

– Create the requirement traceability metrics

– Create the test coverage metrics.

Implementation Phase:

The major task in this STLC phase is of creation of the detailed test cases. Prioritize the test cases also identify which test
case will become part of the regression suite. Before finalizing the test case, It is important to carry out the review to
ensure the correctness of the test cases. Also don’t forget to take the sign off of the test cases before actual execution
starts. If your project involves automation, identify the candidate test cases for automation and proceed for scripting the
test cases. Don’t forget to review them!

Execution Phase

As the name suggests, this is the Software Testing Life Cycle phase where the actual execution takes place. But before
you start your execution, make sure that your entry criterion is met. Execute the test cases, log defects in case of any
discrepancy. Simultaneously fill your traceability metrics to track your progress.

Conclusion Phase

This STLC phase concentrates on the exit criteria and reporting. Depending on your project and stakeholders choice, you
can decide on reporting whether you want to send out a daily report of weekly report etc. There are different types of
reports ( DSR – Daily status report, WSR – Weekly status reports) which you can send, but the important point is, the
content of the report changes and depends upon whom you are sending your reports. If Project managers belong to testing
background then they are more interested in the technical aspect of the project, so include the technical things in your
report ( number of test cases passed, failed, defects raised, severity 1 defects etc.). But if you are reporting to upper
stakeholders, they might not be interested in the technical things so report them about the risks that have been mitigated
through the testing.

Closure Phase

Tasks for the closure activities include the following:

  • Check for the completion of the test. Whether all the test cases are executed or mitigated deliberately. Check there

are no severity 1 defects opened.

  • Do lessons learnt meeting and create lessons learnt document.( Include what went well, where are the scope of

improvements and what can be improved)