Functional Testing Is A Quality Assurance Process And A Type Of Black-box Testing That Bases Its Test Cases On The Specifications Of The Software Component Under Test. Functions Are Tested By Feeding Them Input And Examining The Output, And Internal Program Structure Is Rarely Considered.

1.What is Functional Testing

This is a type of black-box testing that is based on the specifications of the software that is to be tested. The application is
tested by providing input and then the results are examined that need to conform to the functionality it was intended for.
Functional testing of a software is conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with
its specified requirements.

  • There are five steps that are involved while testing an application for functionality
  • The determination of the functionality that the intended application is meant to perform.
  • The creation of test data based on the specifications of the application.
  • The output based on the test data and the specifications of the application.
  • The writing of test scenarios and the execution of test cases.
  • The comparison of actual and expected results based on the executed test cases.

2.What is Unit Testing? What are the lmitations of Unit Testing?

This type of testing is performed by developers before the setup is handed over to the testing team to formally execute the
test cases. Unit testing is performed by the respective developers on the individual units of source code assigned areas. The
developers use test data that is different from the test data of the quality assurance team.

The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that individual parts are correct in terms of
requirements and functionality.

Limitations of Unit Testing

Testing cannot catch each and every bug in an application. It is impossible to evaluate every execution path in every
software application. The same is the case with unit testing.

There is a limit to the number of scenarios and test data that a developer can use to verify a source code. After having
exhausted all the options, there is no choice but to stop unit testing and merge the code segment with other units.

3.Define Integration Testing.How many ways for this?

Integration testing is defined as the testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function correctly.
Integration testing can be done in two ways: Bottom-up integration testing and Top-down integration testing.

1. Bottom-up integration : This testing begins with unit testing, followed by tests of progressively higher-level
combinations of units called modules or builds

2. Top-down integration : In this testing, the highest-level modules are tested first and progressively, lower-level
modules are tested thereafter.

In a comprehensive software development environment, bottom-up testing is usually done first, followed by top-down
testing. The process concludes with multiple tests of the complete application, preferably in scenarios designed to mimic
actual situations

4.What is System Testing?

System testing tests the system as a whole. Once all the components are integrated, the application as a whole is tested
rigorously to see that it meets the specified Quality Standards. This type of testing is performed by a specialized testing

  • System testing is important because of the following reasons:
  • System testing is the first step in the Software Development Life Cycle, where the application is tested as a whole.
  • The application is tested thoroughly to verify that it meets the functional and technical specifications.
  • The application is tested in an environment that is very close to the production environment where theapplication will be deployed.
  • System testing enables us to test, verify, and validate both the business requirements as well as the applicationarchitecture.

5.What is Regression Testing? Why it is important?

Whenever a change in a software application is made, it is quite possible that other areas within the application have been
affected by this change. Regression testing is performed to verify that a fixed bug hasn't resulted in another functionality
or business rule violation. The intent of regression testing is to ensure that a change, such as a bug fix should not result in
another fault being uncovered in the application.

Regression testing is important because of the following reasons:

  • Minimize the gaps in testing when an application with changes made has to be tested.
  • Testing the new changes to verify that the changes made did not affect any other area of the application.
  • Mitigates risks when regression testing is performed on the application.
  • Test coverage is increased without compromising timelines.
  • Increase speed to market the product

6.Explain about Acceptance Testing

This is arguably the most important type of testing, as it is conducted by the Quality Assurance Team who will gauge
whether the application meets the intended specifications and satisfies the client’s requirement. The QA team will have a
set of pre-written scenarios and test cases that will be used to test the application.

More ideas will be shared about the application and more tests can be performed on it to gauge its accuracy and the
reasons why the project was initiated. Acceptance tests are not only intended to point out simple spelling mistakes,
cosmetic errors, or interface gaps, but also to point out any bugs in the application that will result in system crashes or
major errors in the application.

By performing acceptance tests on an application, the testing team will deduce how the application will perform in
production. There are also legal and contractual requirements for acceptance of the system.

7.Explain Alpha Testing

This test is the first stage of testing and will be performed amongest the teams (developer and QA teams). Unit testing,
integration testing and system testing when combined together is known as alpha testing. During this phase, the following
aspects will be tested in the application:

  • Spelling Mistakes
  • Broken Links
  • Cloudy Directions
  • The Application will be tested on machines with the lowest specification to test loading times and any latency problems.

8.Explain about Beta Testing

This test is performed after alpha testing has been successfully performed. In beta testing, a sample of the intended
audience tests the application. Beta testing is also known as pre-release testing. Beta test versions of software are ideally
distributed to a wide audience on the Web, partly to give the program a "real-world" test and partly to provide a preview
of the next release. In this phase, the audience will be testing the following:

  • Users will install, run the application and send their feedback to the project team.
  • Typographical errors, confusing application flow, and even crashes.
  • Getting the feedback, the project team can fix the problems before releasing the software to the actual users.
  • The more issues you fix that solve real user problems, the higher the quality of your application will be.
  • Having a higher-quality application when you release it to the general public will increase customer satisfaction.